momacOS is the working system designed to run on Apple laptops and desktop computer systems. As Apple grew and strengthened the ecosystem via the years, macOS working system model historical past advanced too.
On this article, we information you thru the evolution of Apple’s working system, from the primary public launch in 2001 to the most recent macOS Monterey introduced at WWDC 2021 on June 7.
Is there any distinction between Mac OS X and macOS?
No, they're primarily the identical factor — simply named otherwise. In truth, three phrases have been used at completely different instances with regards to Apple’s working system: Mac OS X, OS X, and macOS. Mac OS X was the official naming via model 10.7, from 2001 to 2011. Within the subsequent 4 years, the OS X names have been used. Lastly, Apple shifted to "macOS" with the discharge of macOS Excessive Sierra in 2016. The latter helped standardize the naming of Apple’s working programs — macOS, iOS, tvOS, iPadOS, and so on.
Listing of macOS variations
Temporary backstory. In 1996, Apple bought NeXT, the corporate Steve Jobs constructed after he had left Apple. The identical 12 months, Jobs returned to Apple and helped construct the primary Mac OS that would compete with Home windows. That’s when it grew to become apparent Apple may develop to grow to be a giant participant.
The primary ancestor of the macOS household was Mac OS X Public Beta launched in 2000, adopted by a public launch of Mac OS X 10.Zero in 2001. Let’s recount the tales of all Mac OS X variations, as much as the present macOS.
1. Mac OS X 10.0 (Cheetah)
March 24, 2001: Aqua interface is born with Mac OS X Cheetah. It’s a giant step within the evolution of graphical interfaces, with 2D and 3D graphics assist, granting an all-new visible expertise. Cheetah featured a water theme, which, in response to Steve Jobs, "one needed to lick after they noticed it." Magnificence comes at a price, although. Graphics enhancements made Cheetah very gradual, which prompted Apple to shift focus from visible expertise to efficiency within the subsequent launch.
supply: Apple Wiki | Fandom
2. Mac OS X 10.1 (Puma)
September 25, 2001: As you may need observed, the primary era of Apple’s working programs was named after animals. Puma arrived with a strong efficiency enhance and some different purposeful enhancements similar to simplified CD and DVD burning, new options in Finder, and extra in depth printer assist.
supply: Apple Wiki | Fandom
3. Mac OS X 10.2 (Jaguar)
August 23, 2002: The third launch of Mac OS X added search to Finder (are you able to think about it, Finder used to exist with out it!) Jaguar additionally brings MPEG-Four assist for QuickTime, a variety of privateness options, and, for the primary time, Accessibility API referred to as Common Entry. A number of the apps born with this launch proceed residing on Mac even immediately (for instance, Deal with Guide, which is now referred to as Contacts).
supply: VTII Know-how
4. Mac OS X 10.3 (Panther)
October 24, 2003: Meet Safari! The primary official net browser made by Apple replaces Web Explorer on Mac. In truth, Safari was out there on Jaguar but it surely’s the primary launch the place it turns into a default browser. Aside from that, Panther provides 150+ new options, together with Font Guide, Xcode enhancements, and extra.
supply: Cult of Mac
5. Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger)
April 29, 2005: Did you assume Apple TV is fairly new? Effectively, guess what, it was born in 2005, with the discharge of Apple’s fifth working system! Tiger was a fairly large replace. It featured Highlight search, Automator, VoiceOver, and round 200 different enhancements. Throughout this time, Apple additionally switched to Intel’s processors, which made Tiger the primary system working on Macs with Intel chips.
6. Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard)
October 26, 2007: Right here comes Leopard, probably the most Mac-changing programs. This time, Mac’s desktop adjustments considerably, with Dock, a brand new menu bar, and Stacks. Time Machine, Highlight enhancements, and assist for 64-bit apps arrive too. In truth, Leopard featured a lot new stuff that Apple even needed to delay the preliminary launch date to complete all of it in time.
supply: Apple Wiki | Fandom
7. Mac OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard)
August 28, 2009: Leopard’s successor, Snow Leopard, centered on increasing 64-bit structure. Many of the native purposes have been rewritten in 64-bit. Again then, specialists used to say that was step one to a full transition, which, as we all know immediately, grew to become true. Additionally, the App Retailer was born within the Snow Leopard period.
8. Mac OS X 10.7 (Lion)
July 20, 2011: With Lion, Apple brings a lot of helpful enhancements from iOS to Mac OS. Launchpad, multi-touch gestures, and extra. Apparently, many individuals criticized Mac OS X 10.7 for the so-called "pure scrolling," which moved the content material up whenever you scroll down. Again then, it appeared extra pure to have the content material transfer down — as Home windows did it.
9. OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion)
July 25, 2012: Main apps like Notes, Reminders, and Messages arrive from iOS, turning Mac right into a extra snug spot for managing your each day routine. Probably the most important replace in Mountain Lion is Notification Heart, with on-screen banners speaking updates.
10. OS X 10.9 (Mavericks)
October 22, 2013: Working system quantity 10 debuts a variety of privateness options, majorly centered on password encryption and storage. That is when iCloud Keychain arrives. Additionally, OS X 10.9 options new Maps, iBooks, and Tags for the primary time, in addition to upgrades Notification Heart by permitting customers to answer immediately from notifications.
supply: Apple Wiki | Fandom
11. OS X 10.10 (Yosemite)
October 16, 2014: Largest redesign in years. From small issues like skinny fonts and new colour schemes to the large shift in the direction of flat graphic design, which higher matches the design of iOS. What’s extra, Yosemite introduces Handoff and Continuity. This as soon as once more confirms Apple’s intention to craft a greater cross-device expertise sooner or later.
12. OS X 10.11 (El Capitan)
September 30, 2015: El Capitan is quicker, higher, stronger than the earlier working system, because of a serious efficiency enhance. For instance, it permits opening apps 40% sooner than previous programs. Additionally, that is the 12 months when Cut up View’s dual-pane emerges, opening up new potentialities for managing home windows on Mac.
13. macOS 10.12 (Sierra)
September 20, 2016: With Sierra, Apple shifts to the "macOS" naming. Once more, extra iOS perks arrive, similar to unlocking a Mac with Apple Watch. There’s additionally a brand new Storage Optimization function with an in depth overview of storage and options on the way to liberate disk area. And, hey Siri!
14. macOS 10.13 (Excessive Sierra)
September 25, 2017: macOS Excessive Sierra provides a brand new video customary referred to as HEIC and a transition to Apple File System (APFS), which is an improved various to its predecessor file system HFS+. Aside from that, there are a number of enhancements in Safari, Mail, and Picture — however nothing main.
15. macOS 10.14 (Mojave)
September 24, 2018: That’s when issues go darkish. We imply Darkish Mode! Mac customers can now transfer via their day-and-night routine, with the colours of the display screen shifting with them, due to Dynamic Desktop function. There are increasingly apps that arrive from iOS, together with Shares, Information, and Residence.
16. macOS 10.15 (Catalina)
October 7, 2019: macOS Catalina marks the loss of life of iTunes, splitting Apple’s top-destination for media content material into three devoted apps — Music, Podcasts, and Motion pictures. Apple continues aligning iOS and macOS with Sidecar, a function that lets your join an iPad display screen to your Mac, and the power for builders to port iOS apps to macOS.
supply: Cell Evaluate
17. macOS 11 (Large Sur)
November 19, 2020: There’s no macOS 10.16, as a result of Large Sur deserves a extra epic model title — 11.0. Bringing an enormous design change and transition to Apple’s M1 Macs, macOS Large Sur is the one to recollect. That is the primary working system that enables operating iOS apps natively on Mac — the so-called Common apps.
18. macOS 12 (Monterey)
Fall 2021: Introduced on June 7, macOS Monterey brings Shortcuts — the power to arrange fast actions with completely different apps to automate your stream. Aside from that, there’s Common Management, a pure transitioning throughout your Mac and iOS gadgets (for instance, you possibly can transfer your cursor between Mac and iPad); redesigned Safari with tab teams, and a variety of cool FaceTime enhancements. Extra on macOS 12 Monterey right here. Additionally, you possibly can verify our articles about the way to improve to macOS Monterey and the way to repair Monterey macOS issues.
What’s the most recent macOS?
New working programs for Mac not solely convey new options, they carry higher efficiency, enhanced privateness, and higher workflow for these working throughout gadgets. When you’re questioning whether or not to improve to the most recent macOS, we’d say sure, it’s value it.
Read more Your Mac won’t connect to Wi-Fi?
How you can verify the most recent macOS in your Mac
Earlier than you improve, it is best to discover out what your present macOS is. Some macOS variations can’t be "skipped." For instance, if you wish to improve to Lion, it is best to first set up Snow Lion. Right here’s the way to verify your working system model on Mac:
- Go to Apple menu > About This Mac
- See the title of your present macOS within the Overview part
- To verify for pending macOS updates, select Software program Replace.
Tip: When you don’t wish to improve, however you are feeling like "you must" as a result of your Mac is slowing down or appearing bizarre, don’t rush into it. Verify what’s unsuitable with iStat Menus app, a real-time system monitor that may determine any pitfalls in your system. Possibly some apps are placing strain in your Mac otherwise you’re low on storage. On this case, macOS replace gained’t assist.
How you can replace to the most recent model of macOS
Older Mac OS X releases or latest macOS, the method of updating working programs follows the identical logic:
- First, you backup your information to make it out there on the brand new macOS
- Second, you be sure to have sufficient area on Mac to put in new macOS
- Third, you obtain and set up the brand new replace.
Step one is crucial. With out securely backing up your disk, you would possibly lose entry to the photographs, docs, and no matter important stuff saved on Mac. We advocate Get Backup Professional or ChronoSync Categorical to run a backup. The previous can again up chosen information and the latter does an important job backing up folders. So that you don’t need to again up the entire disk, with all of the muddle saved on it.
Right here’s the way to create a backup with Get Backup Professional:
- Click on on the "+" button in Backups to create a brand new challenge
- Select a vacation spot to your backup
- Click on File+ so as to add information for backup
- Press Begin.
Again up folders with ChronoSync Categorical:
- Select "Create a brand new synchronization process" on the proper
- Title the challenge
- Select folders for backup
- Select your backup vacation spot
- Hit the arrow button to begin backing up.
When you’ve secured the information, go forward and clear your Mac with CleanMyMac X. Take away muddle, system information, unused apps and app caches, and so on. This fashion, you’ll liberate a lot of storage and get your Mac prepared for a brand new macOS set up. We advocate to begin with a Good Scan, however if you wish to go for a deeper cleanup, undergo devoted modules, all of them work like magic.
Good work! Now you’re prepared to put in macOS 12 Monterey or every other macOS model you wish to strive. For detailed directions on the way to replace macOS, learn this text.